Tuesday, June 12, 2018

Resources on Teotihuacan (June 12, 2018)

 *** UPDATED JUNE 12, 2018 ***

Teotihuacan was one of the major cities of the ancient world, and the available materials on the internet are scattered around. The Wikipedia entry is not very good. I have not seen a good bibliography of works for someone who wants to know about research at the site as written by the relevant archaeologists or good journalists. I am going to use this blog post to create a bibliography and guide to materials on Teotihuacan. It may take me a while to get it all together, so please check back periodically. If you have suggestions, please send them to me.

The Best Book on Teotihuacan !!!

Some Good Journalist Articles on Teotihuacan REsearch

Wade, Lizzie

Moran, Barbara

Wade, Lizzie
Vance, Erik

Some Good Videos on the ASU Teotihuacan Lab:

Other recent internet articles

My paper in Slate:
 “In this ancient city, even commoners lived in palaces:

Spanish version of the above (in HuffPost-Mexico), "La curiosa leccion de igualidad social que revela Teotihuacan

Review Articles (articles that review many recent works, with long bibliographies)

*** I have taken the liberty of posting the more relevant papers by Millon and Cowgill. If there is not a link, and you want a copy, please contact the article's author directly.

Nichols, Deborah L.
2016 Teotihuacan. Journal of Archaeological Research 24 (1): 1-74.

Millon, René

Millon, René

Millon, René

Cowgill, George L.

Cowgill, George L.

 Scholarly articles on Teotihuacan

*** If you want copies, please contact the author of the article directly.

Aveni, Anthony F.
2005 Observations on the Pecked Designs and other Figures Carved on the South Platform of the Pyramid of the Sun at Teotihuacan. Journal for the History of Astronomy 36 (1): 31-47.

Cabrera Castro, Rubén, Sergio Gómez Chávez, and Julie Gazzola
2007 New Findings of Mural Painting. In Museo de murales Teotihuacanos Beatriz de la Fuente, edited by María Teresa Uriarte and Tatiana Falcón, pp. 229-239. Instituto de Investigaciones Estéticas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City.

Carballo, David M.
2007 Implements of State Power: Weaponry and Martially Themes Obsidian Production near the Moon Pyramid, Teotihuacan. Ancient Mesoamerica 18 (1): 173-190.

2013 The Social Organization of Craft Production and Interregional Exchange at Teotihuacan. In Merchants, Markets, and Exchange in the Pre-Columbian World, edited by Kenneth G. Hirth and Joanne Pillsbury, pp. 113-140. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC.

Clayton, Sarah C.
2015 Teotihuacan: An Early Urban Center in its Regional Context. In Early Cities in Comparative Perspective, 4000 BCE - 1200 CE, edited by Norman Yoffee, pp. 279-299. The Cambridge World History, volume 3. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Cowgill, George L., Jeffrey H. Altschul, and Rebecca S. Sload
1984 Spatial Analysis of Teotihuacan, a Mesoamerican Metropolis. In Intrasite Spatial Analysis in Archaeology, edited by Harold J. Hietala, pp. 154-195. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Evans, Susan T.
2016 Location and Orientation of Teotihuacan, Mexico: Water Worshsip and Processional Space. In Processions in the Ancient Americas, edited by Susan T. Evans, pp. 52-121. Occasional Papers in Anthropology, vol. 33. Department of Anthropology, Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA.

Fash, William L, Jr., Alexandre Tokovinine, and Barbara W. Fash
2009 The House of New Fire at Teotihuacan and its Legacy in Mesoamerica. In The Art of Urbanism: How Mesoamerican Kingdoms Represented Themselves in Architecture and Imagery, edited by William L Fash, Jr. and Leonardo López Luján, pp. 201-229. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC.

Gazzola, Julie
2009 Características arquitectónicas en algunas construcciones de fases tempranas en Teotihuacan. Arqueología 42: 216-233.

Gómez Chávez, Sergio
2013 The Exploraiton of the Tunnel under the Feathered Serpent Temple at Teotihuacan: First Results. In Constructing, Deconstructing, and Reconstructing Social Identity: 2,000 Years of Monumentality in Teotihuacan and Cholula, Mexico, edited by Saburo Sugiyama, Shigeru Kabata, Tomoko Taniguchi, and Etsuko Niwa, pp. 11-18. Aichi Prefectural University, Cultural Symbiosis Research Institute, Aichi.

Gómez Chávez, Sergio and Julie Gazzola
2015 Un posible cancha de juego de pelota en el área de la Ciudadela, Teotihuacan. Anales de Antropología 49 (1): 113-133.

Helmke, Christophe and Jesper Nielsen
2013 The Writing on the Wall: A Paleographic Analysis of the Maya Texts of Tetitla, Teotihuacan. In The Maya in a Mesoamerican Context: Comparative Approaches to Maya Studies, edited by Jesper Nielsen and Christophe Helmke, pp. 123-166. Acta Mesoamericana, vol. 26. Verlag Anton Saurwein, Markt Schwaben.

López Luján, Leonardo
2017 Life after Death in Teotihuacan: The Moon Plaza's Monolilthis in Colonial and Modern Mexico. In Visual Culture of the Ancient Americas: Contemporary Perspectives, edited by Andrew Finegold and Ellen Hoobler, pp. 59-90. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

Manzanilla, Linda R.
1996 Corporate Groups and Domestic Activities at Teotihuacan. Latin American Antiquity 7: 228-246.

2004 Social Identity and Daily Life at Classic Teotihuacan. In Mesoamerican Archaeology: Theory and Practice, edited by Julia A. Hendon and Rosemary Joyce, pp. 124-147. Blackwell, Oxford.

2009 Corporate Life in Apartment and Barrio Compounds at Teotihuacan, Central Mexico: Craft Specialization, Hierarchy, and Ethnicity. In Domestic Life in Prehispanic Capitals: A Study of Specialization, Hierarchy, and Ethnicity, edited by Linda R. Manzanilla and Claude Chapdelaine, pp. 21-42. Memoirs, vol. 46. University of Michigan, Museum of Anthropology, Ann Arbor.

Manzanilla, Linda R. and Leonardo López Luján
2001 Exploraciones en un posible palacio de Teotihuacan: El Proyecto Xalla (2000-2001). Mexicon 23: 58-61.

McClung de Tapia, Emily
2012 Silent Hazards, Invisible Risks: Prehispanic Erosion in the Teotihuacan Valley, Central Mexico. In Surviving Sudden Environmental Change, edited by Jago Cooper and Payson Sheets, pp. 143-166. University Press of Colorado, Boulder.

McClung de Tapia, Emily, Elizabeth Solleiro-Rebolledo, Jorge Gama-Castro, José Luis Villalpando, and Sergey Sedov
2003 Paleosols in the Teotihuacan Valley, México: Evidence for Paleoenvironment and Human Impact. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas 20: 270-282.

Murakami, Tatsuya
2015 Replicative construction experiments at Teotihuacan, Mexico: Assessing the duration and timing of monumental construction. Journal of Field Archaeology: published online first.

Nielsen, Jesper
2015 Where Kings Once Ruled? Consideration on Palaces and Rulership at Teotihuacan. In Palaces and Courtly Culture in Ancient Mesoamerica, edited by Julie Nehammer Knub, Christophe Helmke, and Jesper Nielsen, pp. 7-22. Archaeopress, Oxford.

Nielsen, Jesper and Christophe Helmke
2011 Reinterpreting the Plaza de los Glifos, La Ventilla, Teotihuacan. Ancient Mesoamerica 22 (2): 345-370.

Ortega Cabrera, Verónica
2013 Los conjuntos habitacionales: Ejemplos de arquitectura urbana. In Teotihuacán. Nueva mirada al pasado: Arqueología de Salvamento, edited by Verónica Ortega Cabrera and Aldo Díaz Avelar, pp. 38-55. Editorial Académica Española, Madrid.

Robertson, Ian G.
2015 Investigating Teotihuacan through TMP Surface Collections and Observations. Ancient Mesoamerica 26 (1): 163-181.

Robertson, Ian G. and M. Oralia Cabrera Cortés
2016 Teotihuacan pottery as evidence for subsistence practices involving maguey sap. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences 9 (1): 11-27.

Smith, Michael E.

Smith, Michael E. and Clara Paz Bautista
2015 Las almenas en la ciudad antigua de Teotihuacan. Mexicon 37 (5): 118-125.

Somerville, Andrew D., Nawa Sugiyama, Linda R. Manzanilla, and Margaret J. Schoeninger
2016 Animal Management at the Ancient Metropolis of Teotihuacan, Mexico: Stable Isotopoe Analysis of Leporid (Cottontail and Jackrabbit) Bone Mineral. PLOS-One 11 (8): e0159982.

Spence, Michael W.
2015 Personal Art in Teotihuacan: The Thin Orange Graffiti. Ancient Mesoamerica 26 (2): 295-312.

Storey, Rebecca
2006 Mortality Through Time in an Impoverished Residence of the Precolumbian City of Teotihuacan: A Paleodemographic View. In Urbanism in the Preindustrial World: Cross-Cultural Approaches, edited by Glenn R. Storey, pp. 277-294. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.

Sugiyama, Nawa and Andrew D. Somerville
2017 Feeding Teotihuacan: Integrating Approaches to Studying Food and Foodways of the Ancient Metropolis. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences 9 (1): 1-10.

Sugiyama, Saburo
2010 Teotihuacan City Layout as a Cosmogram: Preliminary Results of the 2007 Measurement Unit Study. In The Archaeology of Measurement: Comprehending Heaven, Earth and Time in Ancient Societies, edited by Iain Morley and Colin Renfrew, pp. 130-149. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Sugiyama, Saguro, Nawa Sugiyama, and Alejandro Sarabia G.
2014 En interior de la Priámide del Sol en Teotihuacan. Arqueología Mexicana 125: 24-29.

Taube, Karl A.
2011 Teotihuacan and the Development of Writing in Early Classic Central Mexico. In Their Way of Writing: Scripts, Signs, and Pictographies in Pre-Columbian America edited by Elizabeth H. Boone and Gary Urton, pp. 77-109. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC.

White, Christine D., Michael W. Spence, and Frederick J. Longstaffe
2010 The Teotihuacan Dream: An isotopic study of economic organization and immigration. In In "The “Compleat Archaeologist”: Papers in Honour of Michael Spence, edited by Christopher J. Ellis, Neal Ferris, Peter Timmins, and Christine C. White, pp. 279-297. Ontario Archaeological Society, London, ON.

Some Books on Teotihuacan (a small sample...)

Headrick, Annabeth
2007 The Teotihuacan Trinity: The Sociopolitical Structure of an Ancient Mesoamerican City. University of Texas Press, Austin.

Manzanilla, Linda R. (editor)
2012 Estudios arqueométricos del centro de barrio de Teopancazco en Teotihuacan. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City.

Matos, Eduardo
2009 Teotihuacan. Fondo de Cultura Económica, Mexico City.

Pasztory, Esther
1997 Teotihuacan: An Experiment in Living. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

Robb, Matthew H. (editor)
2017 Teotihuacan: City of Water, City of Fire. Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, De Young, and University of California Press, San Francisco.

Scott, Sue
2001 The Terracotta Figurines from Sigvald Linné's Excavations at Teotihuacan, Mexico. Monograph Series, vol. 18. The National Museum of Ethnography, Stockholm.

Smith, Michael E.
1975 Temples, Residences, and Artifacts at Classic Teotihuacan. Senior Honors Thesis, Department of Anthropology, Brandeis University.  *** HA HA HA, HOW DID THIS OLD WORK GET INTO THE LIST ???

Staines Cicero, Leticia and Christophe Helmke (editors)
2017 Las Pinturas Realistas de Tetitla, Teotihuacan: Estudios a través de la obra de Agustín Villagra Caleti. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México and Intituto Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City.

2005 Human Sacrifice, Militarism, and Rulership: The Symbolism of the Feathered Serpent Pyramid at Teotihuacan, Mexico. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Monday, November 6, 2017

Houses, housing, and inquality in the distant past

When people talk about the relationship of residences--the places where people live--to social inequality and other aspects of society today, they talk about "housing." But when archaeologists talk about residences, we usually talk about "houses," and not "housing." This distinction is on my mind because I just finished reading Mathew Desmond's outstanding book, Evicted: Poverty and Profit in the American City (2016). This is the best book I have read in a long time and there is much to talk about. Go read the book, it's really fantastic; I'll devote a blog post to the book before long. But first I want to use the book as a stimulus to explore the differences between they way archaeologists talk about houses in the past and the way sociologists (and others) talk about housing in the present. One of the questions on my mind is methodological: how can archaeologists get at issues of housing and inequality in our studies of ancient urban houses?

Houses in the past
Aztec commoner house

When archaeologists talk about residences in the past, the focus is on the house, or the physical structure in which people live. We are concerned with how these were built: what were the construction materials and where did they come from? What kind of techniques were used by the builders? How big were houses? How much effort and materials were needed to build a house? Can we estimate the number of people (or at least the number of households) who lived in a specific house? Our focus on these things is natural, given the kind of fragmentary evidence we have about houses in the past.

Size variation in Aztec houses at 2 settlements
Archaeologists have found that the size of houses can be a good measure of inequality in the past. This information can be used for social class analysis (Olson and Smith 2016), or for the study of continuous wealth inequality using measures like the Gini index, based on the assumption that house size was an index of household wealth ( Smith et al. 2014). For the first, time, archaeologists are beginning to accumulate enough cases of inequality in house size, measured with the Gini index, to draw some conclusions about past inequality (Kohler et al. 2017; Kohler and Smith 2018). As more archaeologists quantify their data on houses and settlements, our understanding  of levels of past inequality will continue to improve.

While this is a productive development in the archaeology of social inequality, reading Matthew Desmond's book Evicted makes me wonder if we can do better by using the concept of housing.

Housing today

The study of how housing relates to social inequality today goes far beyond the topics of architecture and house size. Major questions include: Who builds housing units? Who owns them? How do residents get access to housing? And can residents who rent create a stable pattern that avoids frequent moves? These are the issues explored in Evicted through detailed case-study ethnography, coupled with scholarly documentation of patterns in the endnotes. Can archaeologists get at any of this?
My typology of premodern urban house types

When archaeologists use the term "housing," the word is usually used informally and not analytically. That is, we may use the word, but just to talk about the standard issues of ancient house form and size outlined above. I was rooting around for a relevant scholarly definition of "housing," getting frustrated that writers on housing today don't see the need to define the term. Maybe "everybody knows" what it means, but still, it is sloppy practice to not define one's terms. Then I checked my own paper on the topic (Smith 2014a) to see how I defined the term. Oops! No definition! I am guilty here too. In that paper I talk about types of urban house units in the premodern world, but "housing" is not used as a formal concept.

Housing in the past?
Standardized housing in Mexico today

Can archaeologists approach the question of who built housing in cases where we lack written documents? I think that the analysis of standardization in housing can allow us to make reasonable inferences on whether housing was built by the state or another formal institution (e.g., a temple community), or by residents themselves. But standardization of architectural forms is a tricky question. Today, some housing is obviously standardized--such as contemporary Mexican ex-urban developments or mid-twentieth century socialist housing in Europe--and other housing is clearly informal, which usually means non-standardized.

First, precisely what is or is not standardized? It can be the size of a dwelling, principles of layout, materials used, construction methods. Second, who is doing the standardizing? Individual self-builders? While this often leads to variability in house form, when builders deliberately stick to a cultural norm, as in much vernacular architecture, the result can be standardized forms. Or is standardization created by professional builders and architects? By the state? Or by the capitalist market and zoning regulations (as in urban and suburban developments today)?

It turns out that standardized housing is a complex topic, one that is not very well researched in the fields of housing and architecture (and almost never by archaeologists). Drawing on my model of premodern urban planning (Smith 2007), an archaeologist might associate standardization of housing over an entire city, or city sector, with the actions of the state (e.g., Olynthus or Teotihuacan). Standardized housing on the scale of a neighborhood might be created by the state or by professional builders working for clients. And nonstandardized housing suggests auto-construction by house owners (Turner 1991; Ward 1973).

Another domain where archaeologists can begin to approach issues of housing and inequality, parallel to scholars of the modern world, is residential stability.  In another paper (Smith 2014b), I cited contemporary social-science research showing that urban residential stability is associated with higher standards of living, lower levels of crime, and other measures of community well-being (one thread of this research is referred to as social disorganization theory). I drew on sociologists such as Robert Sampson (2012). I argued that similar dynamics (linking residential stability to positive community outcomes) probably characterized premodern cities as well. I presented some evidence from my studies of Aztec communities showing that the houses I excavated in wealthier communities tended to be occupied continuously over long periods, whereas the houses in less well-off communities showed more discontinuity in occupation. I develop this argument in my (award-winning!) popular book, At Home with the Aztecs (Smith 2016). I wish I had been able to read Desmond's Evicted before writing my book. It is the most eloquent (and empirically compelling) discussion of the negative effects of the lack of residential stability, caused by evictions.
Each bar is a house. Yautepec houses had more stability than at Calxitlahuaca
But these efforts are just a beginning. Archaeologists need to take a closer look at research on contemporary cities and housing, and devise creative ways to put that knowledge to work in explaining the past. And scholars of contemporary housing might pay attention to some of the better archaeological research to get an idea of the longevity of patterns and the historical depth of systems of social inequality. But a point I make in Smith (2010) is that unless archaeologists analyze our data in ways that foster comparison and conceptual advance, it won't be comparable at all to the modern world, and any such comparisons will be facile and superficial.


Desmond, Matthew  (2016)  Evicted: Poverty and Profit in the American City. Broadway Books, New York.

Kohler, Timothy and Michael E. Smith (editors)  (2018)  Ten Thousand Years of Inequality: The Archaeology of Wealth Differences. University of Arizona Press (in press), Tucson.

Kohler, Timothy A., Michael E. Smith, Amy Bogaard, Gary M. Feinman, Christina E. Peterson, Aleen Betzenhauser, Matthew C. Pailes, Elizabeth C. Stone, Anna Marie Prentiss, Timothy Dennehy, Laura Ellyson, Linda M. Nicholas, Ronald K. Faulseit, Amy Styring, Jade Whitlam, Mattia Fochesato, Thomas A. Foor and Samuel Bowles  (2017)  Greater Post-Neolithic Wealth Disparities in Eurasia than in North and Mesoamerica. Nature (in press).

Olson, Jan Marie and Michael E. Smith  (2016)  Material Expressions of Wealth and Social Class at Aztec-Period Sites in Morelos, Mexico. Ancient Mesoamerica 27(1):133-147.

Sampson, Robert J.  (2012)  Great American City: Chicago and the Enduring Neighborhood Effect. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Smith, Michael E.  (2007)  Form and Meaning in the Earliest Cities: A New Approach to Ancient Urban Planning. Journal of Planning History 6(1):3-47.

Smith, Michael E.  (2010)  Sprawl, Squatters, and Sustainable Cities: Can Archaeological Data Shed Light on Modern Urban Issues? Cambridge Archaeological Journal 20:229-253.

Smith, Michael E.  (2014a)  Housing in Premodern Cities: Patterns of Social and Spatial Variation. International Journal of Architectural Research 8(3):207-222.

Smith, Michael E.  (2014b)  Peasant Mobility, Local Migration, and Premodern Urbanization. World Archaeology 46(4):516-533.

Smith, Michael E.  (2016)  At Home with the Aztecs: An Archaeologist Uncovers their Domestic Life. Routledge, New York.

Smith, Michael E., Timothy Dennehy, April Kamp-Whittaker, Emily Colon and Rebecca Harkness  (2014)  Quantitative Measures of Wealth Inequality in Ancient Central Mexican Communities. Advances in Archaeological Practice 2(4):311-323.

Turner, John F. C.  (1991)  Housing by People: Towards Autonomy in Building Environments. Marion Boyars, London.

Ward, Colin  (1973)  We House, You are Housed, They are Homeless (chapter 6). In Anarchy in Action, pp. 67-73. George Allen and Unwin, London.

Tuesday, October 10, 2017

Burial goods and wealth in urban, state societies

I am looking for comparative and conceptual works related to a project of examining burial goods at Teotihuacan for evidence of wealth or status variation. My needs right how are highly specific; they are set out in numbered bullets below. In brief, I would like to find comparative or analogical cases that provide a justification or warrant for using grave goods to monitor wealth or status in state-level societies. I have had trouble finding anything, so perhaps this does not exist, or perhaps I am just looking in the wrong places and readers can point me in the correct direction.

Let me begin with another, parallel, case to illustrate what I am looking for: the relationship of wealth and house size. I have been involved in using the sizes of houses to monitor wealth for many decades, publishing both empirical studies and conceptual works (Kohler and Smith 2018; Olson and Smith 2016; Smith 1975, 1992, 1993, 2014, 2016; Smith et al. 2014) . If you ask how I justify using the size of houses as a measure of wealth, I can provide many citations to ethnographies, ethnoarchaeological studies, and historical and archaeological works. They show that in many or most cases with quantitative data (and within a given society or settlement system), wealthy households (as measured from documentary or other independent evidence) live in bigger houses. There is strong cross-cultural support for this claim, which justifies using house size to measure wealth in the absence of independent wealth data. We will include a list of such studies when our book on wealth variation in archaeology comes out (Kohler and Smith 2018). If your reaction is, "But I can think of exceptions," then you don't get the point. This is a statistical relationship, not an invariant relationship, so of course there are exceptions. If you think that the exceptions invalidate my claim, then either you have dozens of cases I haven't seen, or else you may want to take a statistics class.

Does such evidence exist for burial goods? I don’t want to get involved in arguments about the Binford-Saxe model, the postprocessual critique, or particularistic claims that this or that ethnographic case don't fit the model that burial goods reflect wealth (Ucko 1969). I want some hard comparative evidence so that I can make an empirical judgment about the likely strength of the relationship between burial goods and wealth in urban, state societies. Here is what I want:

  •          Best case: Ethnographic, historical, or archaeological cases (state society, ideally Premodern) with these characteristics:
    • a.   There is a good sample of households of known wealth
    • b.   There are burials with burial goods that can be linked to those households. That is, either the burials are spatially associated with individual houses, or else there is textual data linking households to burials. The wealth measures should be independent of the burials.
    • c.    It would be nice also to have independent data about the extent of wealth and class variation in the society.
  •          Second-best case: Ethnographic, historical, or archaeological cases (state society, ideally Premodern) with these characteristics:
    • a.   There is a good sample of burials with burial goods
    • b.   There is independent data about the extent of wealth and class variation in the society. That is, the burials could be from a cemetery and thus not linked to individual houses or households.
  •          Third-best case: Archaeological studies of a sample of burials with burial goods that use quantitative analysis to reach conclusions about the nature and extent of wealth or class variation in the society.

If you can help me out with citations, please email me!  Thanks.


Kohler, Timothy and Michael E. Smith (editors)
2018 Ten Thousand Years of Inequality: The Archaeology of Wealth Differences. University of Arizona Press (in press), Tucson.

Olson, Jan Marie and Michael E. Smith
2016 Material Expressions of Wealth and Social Class at Aztec-Period Sites in Morelos, Mexico. Ancient Mesoamerica 27 (1): 133-147.

Smith, Michael E.
1975 Temples, Residences, and Artifacts at Classic Teotihuacan. Senior Honors Thesis, Department of Anthropology, Brandeis University.

1992 Archaeological Research at Aztec-Period Rural Sites in Morelos, Mexico. Volume 1, Excavations and Architecture / Investigaciones arqueológicas en sitios rurales de la época Azteca en Morelos, Tomo 1, excavaciones y arquitectura. Memoirs in Latin American Archaeology, vol. 4. University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh.

1993 New World Complex Societies: Recent Economic, Social, and Political Studies. Journal of Archaeological Research 1: 5-41.

2014 Housing in Premodern Cities: Patterns of Social and Spatial Variation. International Journal of Architectural Research 8 (3): 207-222.

2016 Quality of Life and Prosperity in Ancient Households and Communities. In The Oxford Handbook of Historical Ecology and Applied Archaeology (book in press), edited by Christian Isendahl and Daryl Stump. Oxford University Press, New York.

Smith, Michael E., Timothy Dennehy, April Kamp-Whittaker, Emily Colon, and Rebecca Harkness
2014 Quantitative Measures of Wealth Inequality in Ancient Central Mexican Communities. Advances in Archaeological Practice 2 (4): 311-323.

Ucko, Peter J.
1969 Ethnography and Archaeological Interpretation of Funerary Remains. World Archaeology 1 (2): 262-280.